1. What age should a woman begin having mammograms?
    • A mammogram is a low-dose x-ray exam of the breasts to look for changes that are not normal. A mammogram allows the doctor to have a closer look for changes in breast tissue that cannot be felt during a breast exam. Women ages 50 to 74 years should get a mammogram every 2 years. Women younger than age 50 should talk to a doctor about when to start and how often to have a mammogram. https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/mammograms
  1. Can nutrition improve a cancer patient’s quality of life?
    • International guidelines on the nutritional management of patients with cancer recommend intervention with dietary advice and/or oral nutritional supplements in patients who are malnourished or those judged to be at nutritional risk, but the evidence base for these recommendations is lacking. We examined the effect of oral nutritional interventions in this population on nutritional and clinical outcomes and quality of life (QOL). http://foundation96.com/increasing-nutritional-intake-can-improve-a-cancer-patients-quality-of-life/
  1. What are the symptoms of lung cancer?
    • Symptoms and signs of early lung cancer
    • There may be no symptoms at the onset of the disease. When present, common symptoms of lung cancer may include:
    • Coughing: This includes a persistent cough that doesn’t go away or changes to a chronic “smoker’s cough,” such as more coughing or pain.
    • Coughing up blood: Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum (spit or phlegm) should always be discussed with your doctor.
    • Breathing difficulties: Shortness of breath, wheezing or noisy breathing (called stridor) may all be signs of lung cancer.
    • Loss of appetite: Many cancers cause changes in appetite, which may lead to unintended weight loss.
    • Fatigue: It is common to feel weak or excessively tired.
    • Recurring infections: Recurring infections, like bronchitis or pneumonia, may be one of the signs of lung cancer.

    Signs of advanced stages of lung cancer

    • Advanced stages of lung cancer are often characterized by the spread of the cancer to distant sites in the body. This may affect the bones, liver or brain. As other parts of the body are affected, new lung cancer symptoms may develop, including:
    • Bone pain
    • Swelling of the face, arms or neck
    • Headaches, dizziness or limbs that become weak or numb
    • Jaundice
    • Lumps in the neck or collar bone region
  1. Am I more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer if I have a family history of the disease?
    • Women with close relatives who’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer have a higher risk of developing the disease.
    • If you’ve had one first-degree female relative (sister, mother, daughter) diagnosed with breast cancer, your risk is doubled. If two first-degree relatives have been diagnosed, your risk is 5 times higher than average
    • If your brother or father have been diagnosed with breast cancer, your risk is higher, though researchers aren’t sure how much higher.
    • In some cases, a strong family history of breast cancer is linked to having an abnormal gene associated with a high risk of breast cancer, such as the BRCA1 or BRCA2 In other cases, an abnormal CHEK2 gene may play a role in developing breast cancer. http://www.breastcancer.org/risk/factors/family_history
  1. How common is cancer?
    About half of all men and one-third of all women in the US will develop cancer during their lifetimes. A person’s chance of developing most types of cancers can be reduced by making some lifestyle changes. Such as, staying away from tobacco, reducing time in the sun, being active and eating healthy foods. Screen testing can be done for some types of cancers for early detection – while they are small and before they can spread. In general, the earlier a cancer is found and treated, the better the chances are for living for many years.
  1. Who can get cancer?
    Over 1.5 million new cancer cases are diagnosed every year. Anyone can get cancer and at any age, but the risk goes up age. Nine out of ten individuals who are 50 years old and older are diagnosed with cancer. Cancer can be found in all people, regardless of race and ethnicity, but the rate of cancer occurrence (incidence rate) varies from group to group.
  1. What causes cancer?
    Some cancers are caused by the things people do or expose themselves to. For instance, tobacco usage can cause cancer of the lungs, mouth, throat, bladder, kidneys, and many other organs. Not everyone who uses tobacco will get cancer, but it can increase the risk. It can also increase the chances of developing heart and blood vessel disease.Too much sun exposure without sun protection can cause skin cancer called melanoma. Melanoma is a very serious form of skin cancer. It’s linked to UV lighting from the sun and tanning beds.
  1. Other things people are exposed to
    Radiation can cause cancer. For example, people who are exposed to nuclear fallout have a higher cancer risk than those who aren’t. Sometimes, radiation treatment for one type of cancer can cause another cancer to grow many years later. This is why doctors and dentists use the lowest possible doses of radiation for x-rays and scans (much lower than the doses used for cancer treatment).There are certain chemicals that have been linked to cancer. Being exposed to or working with these chemicals can increase a person’s risk of cancer.It’s a known myth that injuries can cause cancer. Note: falls, bruises, broken bones, or other such injuries have not been linked to cancer. Rarely, a burn scar can be cancer, many years after the burn has healed. Most often, skin cancer is the type that starts in a burn scar.
  1. Can stress cause cancer?
    There are no findings of personality, attitude, stress, and cancer linking. There’s no scientific evidence that proves a person’s personality or outlook affects their cancer risk.There are many factors to view in the relationship between stress and cancer. It’s known that stress affects the immune system, but so does many other things. Despite many studies, a link between psychological stress and cancer has not been found.
  1. What are the risk factors for cancer?
    A risk factor is anything linked to your chance of getting a disease, such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, skin exposing to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer, but it’s not linked to colon cancer. Some risk factors can actually cause cancer, while others may simply be more common in people who get cancer.Having one risk factor, or even many, does not mean someone will get cancer. Some people with one or more risk factors never develop the disease, while others who do develop cancer have no known risk factors. Even when a person who has a risk factor is diagnosed with cancer, there’s no way to prove the risk factor actually caused the cancer. There are different kinds of risk factors. Some, like a person’s age or race, can’t be changed. Others are linked to cancer-causing factors in the environment. Still, others are related to personal actions, such as smoking. Some factors influence risk more than others, and a person’s risk for cancer can change over time, due to factors such as aging or lifestyle.

    Some of the major cancer risk factors that can be controlled:

    • Tobacco use
    • Diet
    • Physical activity
    • Weight
    • Alcohol use
    • Sun exposure
    • Environmental exposures, such as radon, lead, and asbestos
    • Exposure to infections such as hepatitis, HPV, and HIV

    Overall, about 1 out of 5 cancers diagnosed in the US are related to body fatness, physical inactivity, excess use of alcohol, and/or poor nutrition, and could be prevented.

  1. Is cancer contagious?
    Cancer is not contagious, it’s not your common cold or flu. You cannot catch cancer from someone who has it. So, don’t be afraid to visit a loved one with cancer, they need the support of their family and friends.
  1. Can cancer be prevented?
    There’s no sure way to prevent cancer, but there are things you can do to help reduce your chances of getting it. Minimizing your intake of tobacco, alcohol, Ultraviolet (UV) rays, and sunlight and eating a healthy diet.
  1. Vaccines that help reduce cancer risk
    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). It’s been linked to cervical cancer, anal cancer, many genital cancers, and even head and neck cancers. There are vaccines to help prevent HPV infections. But most adults have already been infected with HPV, and the vaccines haven’t been proven to help people who already have HPV. Young people who are not yet sexually active should have a lower future cancer risk if they get one of the vaccines before they’re exposed to the virus. The American Cancer Society recommends the vaccines for girls and boys aged 11 and 12, though they can be given as young as age 9. Vaccination is also recommended up to age 26 in women, as well as in certain men who may be at higher risk for HPV infection.